The Tierpark Hagenbeck is a zoo in Stellingen, now a quarter in Hamburg, Germany. The collection began in 1863 with animals that belonged to Carl Hagenbeck Sr. (1810–87), a fishmonger who became an amateur animal collector. The park itself was founded by Carl Hagenbeck Jr. in 1907. It is known for being the first zoo to use open enclosures surrounded by moats, rather than barred cages, to better approximate animals’ natural environments. In 1863 the elder Hagenbeck began collecting exotic animals that came through the port. By the 1870s, the trade had proved more lucrative than his fish shop, and Hagenbeck had become one of the most prominent exotic animal traders in all of Europe. In 1874, the younger Hagenbeck traveled around the world collecting animals. Among his collections, however, were also human beings which he exhibited in “human zoos”. In 1874, Hagenbeck opened a zoo facility in Hamburg, called Carl Hagenbeck’s Thierpark, while he continued exhibiting humans. Though initially popular, Hagenbeck’s shows gradually began to decline in popularity, especially once the photograph became more and more common, and Hagenbeck’s exhibits began to look less and less real in comparison. After one exhibit, Hagenbeck was left with a large number of elephants and no one to purchase them. Unable to sell, he started a circus. To counter the declining popularity of his human zoos, Hagenbeck began working on making his displays more realistic, techniques that would later influence the animal zoo. In the 1890s Hagenbeck created his first “panorama” exhibit and patented the idea in 1896. The display was the “Northern Panorama”, the foreground featured seals and walruses in a pool. Hidden from the zoo’s patrons was a moat behind the pool. Beyond the moat were reindeer, and beyond a second hidden moat were polar bears. By hiding the moats, the animals appeared to be together in one landscape. In 1907, Hagenbeck constructed a new facility outside of Hamburg which he called Tierpark Hagenbeck (without the ‘H’ that was in Thierpark) which is still the location of the facility today. Hagenbeck sought to design the entire zoo with his panorama system. He also sought to demonstrate that animals from warmer climates did not need to live in expensive, humid, foreboding buildings. Instead, Hagenbeck again sought to make his displays realistic. Using data that he had compiled running his circus, Hagenbeck had estimates of how high and far different animals could leap. Using this data, he built moats filled with water or an empty pit that he determined the animals could not cross. Using moats to separate animals that did not swim, one could look across an expanse of the zoo and see many animals at once, as if in the wild. Previously, zoos had not grouped animals by species, but Hagenbeck revolutionized the layout of zoos, grouping his animals by species. Hagenbeck’s design was a popular success. In 1911, Hagenbeck designed the Rome Zoo in the same style. In 1913, he designed the first monkey-rock exhibit, in this case an artificial crag with a 16-foot (4.9 m) moat. The rock was populated by around 200 Hamadryas baboons. Hagenbeck called his design an animal paradise where “animals would live beside each other in harmony and where the fight for survival would be eliminated. In July 1956, forty five rhesus monkeys escaped from the zoo and ran wild in Hamburg. The incident resulted in calls for help from shocked housewives who met monkeys in their bedrooms and bathtubs. Some of the monkeys sat in trees and chattered excitedly, showing each other toothpaste, soap bars and bathroom utensils which they had grabbed. Managers of the Zoo reported that more than two dozen of the long-tailed Indian monkeys had been caught by policemen, firemen, zoo keepers and schoolchildren. A visit to Tierpark Hagenbeck is always an unforgettable experience: for over 100 years, the 25 hectares of grounds have been delighting visitors of all ages with an amazing variety of botanical species, protected views, open-air enclosures and numerous cultural monuments. Discover over 1,850 animals from every continent – including one of Europe’s biggest elephant herds and enjoy watching lots of animals moving around the park freely. Visit the show presentations and learn exciting facts about our animals – and maybe even try feeding an elephant or a giraffe yourself! Other highlights of Europe’s most charming zoo include pony rides, a fairyland miniature railway, a petting zoo and a large play area. The Eismeer: over 8,000 sq m of polar fascination in the animal park: Globally unique: a place where North Pole meets South Pole, and you can experience everything with all your senses. Be amazed by breathtaking views both above and below water of polar bears, fur seals and one of the deepest walrus pools in the world. 1,200 square meters of water surface area and 5.5 million liters of water in a range of pools offer the animals plenty of space to swim and dive. Watch the underwater action from behind large panoramic panels. As you pass along the 750 meters walkway, you will get to see species from polar regions behaving almost as if they were in the wild and Arctic seabirds in a free flight aviary.